PSY FPX 5201 Assessment 2 Literature Synthesis

PSY FPX 5201 Assessment 1

PSY FPX 5201 Assessment 2

Introduction

The healthcare research topic I have selected is the effects of telehealth on health consumers and the elements that make up the healthcare delivery system. This topic is relevant since it relates to psychology in the determination of factors that influence the behavior of distant healthcare service consumers, as well as their health status and well-being, besides the assessment of the effectiveness of such healthcare services. Telehealth has become one of the unprecedented tools in the current healthcare delivery system, as pointed out by Smith et al. (2020) due to the COVID-19 outbreak, which required remote consultancies to enhance social distancing.

Connection to Psychology

Psychologically, there is an opportunity to affect patients’ compliance with the treatment plan, alleviate the fear of appointments or the need to visit a clinic, and improve access to mental health in underprivileged groups. For example, it was established that telehealth can eliminate challenges related to Mental health services, thus enhancing patients’ survival rates, especially those diagnosed with anxiety and depression (Gentry et al., 2021). Also, the ‘‘anytime, place’’ nature of telehealth helps enhance patient satisfaction and, therefore, patient adherence, both of which are inimical to psyches health outcomes of care (Koonin et al., 2020).

 Advancing the Knowledge Base

Studying this topic will contribute to the literature by offering data concerning the effectiveness of telehealth for enhancing patient health and reducing health inequality. This will also help fill the gap in knowledge about the psychological effects of telehealth and provide more information about how remote care health could be further used to improve patients’ attitudes (Greenhalgh et al., 2016). This knowledge can be helpful for policymakers and healthcare organizations that need to implement this technology successfully and address patients’ psychological and medical requirements.

Recent theoretical direction in addressing the research topic

Admission of subscribing to numerous psychological theories forms a theoretical framework that is useful in assessing the effects of telehealth on patients and the accessibility of healthcare. Specific theories include Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory, which addresses the micro level of the patient and provider, the Meso level, such as the home and healthcare environment, and the Exo level, such as the technology used in healthcare facilities (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). This theory provides the rationale for answering the research questions as it relates to the functioning and impact of telehealth within and across these related systems.

Common Themes

Fortunately, one popular trend is the issue of healthcare accessibility and equality, which is related to Martha Bernal’s research on cultural adaptation in psychological practice. The role of telehealth can quickly intervene in the service delivery gaps that affect these populations with regard to mental health care. Also, following the principles of behavior, B. F. Skinner postulated that easy access to and the freedom of using telehealth would increase patients’ compliance and would maintain positive new behaviors through the constant interactions brought about by telehealth (Skinner, 1953).

Counter Opinions

The counterarguments are rooted in the issues of equity of access to health care through the use of CPOE and the nature of the consumer-provider relationship online. Some commentators have claimed that telehealth may fail to provide the necessary level of interpersonal communication that is necessary to deliver certain forms of therapy (Greenhalgh et al., 2018). According to Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, face-to-face communication is considered essential for specific developmental levels; however, such types of interactions may be limited in a telehealth context, especially for young children (Piaget, 1972).

Integrative Discussion

Taking into account the above views, telehealth may be defined as a multifaceted phenomenon that interacts with potential improvements and risks in the field of psychological activity. On the positive side, it increases access and statistically instant behavior. In contrast, on the negative side, one is likely to overlook children’s distinct development needs and the Java gap in learners.

Literature Review and State of Research

This paper focuses on the existing literature on telehealth, calling for increased attention to its use as a promising means of addressing the delivery of care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Research work has repeatedly affirmed that telehealth increases the availability of care and flexibility in patients, which increases the patient’s well-being and levels of satisfaction (Smith, Cunningham, & de la Peña, 2020). Studies also show that there are still possibilities of delivering mental health services through telehealth to decrease factors such as shame and distance restrictions (Gentry et al., 2021). However, telehealth has its drawbacks, including doubts regarding its effectiveness in addressing patients’ needs, particularly those with multiple diseases, whose conditions might necessitate a physical examination, or individuals who struggle with developing effective communication with clinicians (Greenhalgh et al., 2018).

Common Themes

One of the most common notes in the literature is the utilization of telehealth to explain the disparities that exist within the healthcare sector. Martha Bernal has done a lot of work on cultural competence and increased usage of telehealth in underserved populations, hence growing equity in the provision of health services (Bernal, 1993). Another theme is the degree of patients’ involvement and their compliance with prescribed treatments. When it comes to this point, one can recall the behaviorist theory of B. F. Skinner, who underscored the significance of the topicality of and easy access to telehealth services (Skinner, 1953). Such themes illustrate the potential of telehealth in enhancing the efficiency of medical services and patient’s conditions in the sphere of mental health.

Counter Opinions

It is for this reason that some researchers have pointed out that telehealth is less effective than traditional face-to-face care. Concerns include the exclusion of the patient group that needs access to the internet and possibly decreased effectiveness of therapeutic talks when the interaction occurs through video call only (Greenhalgh et al., 2018). In a telehealth environment, Piaget’s theory argues that developmental stages that entail direct interaction may be a disadvantage. Therefore, there is a need for moderation.

Integrative Discussion

The place of telehealth in health care systems, as well as its benefits and drawbacks, must be considered. The reviewed research indicates that telehealth may enhance the current paradigms of care if the mentioned problems are systematically dealt with.

Synthesis of Research Findings

Teasing out the results of extant telehealth research provides a complex picture of the many ways in which this technology influences healthcare and patients’ experiences, thus generating new knowledge on its benefits and drawbacks. The literature has provided evidence that telehealth has a significant impact on enhancing the accessibility of health services, primarily to the underprivileged. For instance, Smith et al. (2020) observed that telehealth organizations increased compliance with the care gaps occasioned by disruptions in health care. This is in line with Bernal’s (1993) call for a culture of Diversity, which underlines the use of telehealth in eliminating disparities in healthcare delivery systems.

Enhancing Patient Engagement

Telehealth also increases effective communication with the patient and their compliance with the respective prescribed treatment plans. Telehealth can be another form of utilization of Skinner’s behaviorism features, as the instant gratification of receiving a rapid response to a symptom and the convenience of never having to leave one’s home or office make for effective health-positive behaviors. Gentry et al. (2021) further agree with this research, stating that telehealth interventions for the use of managing anxiety and depression lead to improved patient compliance and effectiveness. The combined message of behavioral theory and empirical evidence is that telehealth works in keeping patients engaged.

Addressing Digital Divide

However, there is a significant counterview as the facility may not be accessible due to the digital gap. Greenhalgh et al. (2018) pointed out explicitly that a non-trivial number of patients will only be able to use online services if they have access to the Internet and are technologically illiterate. This issue relates to Piaget’s theory in that during some of the developmental levels, direct communication between people is considered crucial (Piaget, 1972). Correction of these inequalities is critical in order to enhance the effectiveness of telehealth and guarantee that it supports rather than competes with conventional medical practices.

Integrative Understanding

That is why, based on such findings, it is possible to conclude that even though the use of telehealth has a number of advantages concerning its applicability and patient’ attraction, the practical application of telehealth implies the usage of roadmaps aimed at reducing the digital gap. This stated approach will guarantee that telehealth acts as a catalyst for improving the healthcare system without diluting the quality that is offered or neglecting people in need.

PSY FPX 5201 Assessment 2

Critique of Research Methodologies and Designs

The empirical research on telehealth comprises a diverse range of methods and approaches reflecting the field’s evolution and theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are quantitative studies, are commonly used to give accurate estimations of the effects of telehealth. For instance, Gentry et al. (2021) conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs on telehealth interventions for anxiety and depression. They proved the effectiveness of the app in improving patients’ health. However, such studies are constrained by issues of external validity since the conditions under which the learning takes place are often artificial and do not incorporate real-life aspects.

Qualitative Research Contributions

Telehealth qualitative studies are also crucial in understanding the patient’s experience and factors that may impact telehealth outcomes. Interviews and focus groups, as illustrated by Greenhalgh et al. (2018), show messier pictures that provide detailed insights into patients–clinicians’ relations and telemedicine implementation challenges. Thus, although such studies add depth to the evaluations, their results are contingent on comparatively small samples and might be influenced by the researcher’s bias.

Mixed-Methods Approaches

Some limitations include telehealth’s inability to address a broad range of clinical conditions and patients’ preferences; telehealth interventions often focus on select clinical conditions, and there is limited knowledge of patients’ preferences concerning telehealth. Mixed-methods research helps overcome some of these limitations because it adopts both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Smith et al. (2020) used mixed research methodology to explore a telehealth scenario by combining quantitative data analysis with the patients’ testimonials, focusing both on objective results and subjective impressions. This approach suits Bronfenbrenner’s established Ecological Systems Theory because several layers contribute to health behaviors (Bronfenbrenner, 1979).

Counter Opinions and Challenges

Nevertheless, these approaches have limitations despite the mentioned strengths. Although telehealth has shown various possibilities and benefits for now, critics say that the need for synchronization in implementing telehealth across all healthcare organizations due to the digital divide limits the application of telehealth in broader contexts. Also, from Piaget’s developmental theory, it is possible that telehealth may not be applicable to young children since their education is directly and actively acquired through instruction (Piaget, 1972). This points to the need for targeted strategies in telehealth research that aim to address the exact population needs and technological gaps.

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PSY FPX 5201 Assessment 1 Annotated Bibliography

References

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