RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3 t-Test Application and Interpretation

  • Data Analysis Plan

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The aim of the data analysis is to identify disparities Among the results of individuals who engaged in the assessment session and those who refrained. The examination of the test scores got influenced in these particular cases will help you to understand if the review session influenced the final exam scores.We will consider two key determinants. Firstly, if the student responds with “yes,” they attended the review session; conversely, if they answer “no,” they did not attend. The second factor is “Final.” It is a continuous numerical variable indicating each student’s performance on the final examination.

The average of the final test scores of both groups can be compared to check if going to the review had any effect. Assume that those who attended the review received a much higher average grade than those who did not go. Well, it seems that the study session did help to some effect to the final. The statistical approach to calculating group means is an equitable way to examine differences (Ferone et al., 2019).Additionally, other statistical tests can also be applied to analyse the data at a deeper level to determine if there are any significant relationships between the number of revision sessions and any differences in the final test scores. Using the factors of review involvement and final exam scores, it is possible to make inferences on the data regarding whether providing a review made the student perform better on this critical exam (Wang et al., 2020). The aim of the data analysis is to scrutinize this correlation without depending on strict assumptions.

Testing Assumptions

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3

Uniformity of variance, alternatively recognized as equivalence of variances is one of the crucial assumptions that need to be satisfied to rely on the outcomes of a t-test. This is translated to the groups under comparison having the same variance. This idea can be checked using Levene’s test for equality of variances. The aim of the study is to ascertain if participation in the review class impacted students’ performance on the final test. The reliant factor is the final exam score, a constant numerical value signifying the student’s achievement in the examination.

The test outcomes reveal a p-value of 0.392 and Levene’s F-statistic of 0.740. Hence, we can’t also say that the null hypothesis that there are equal differences is wrong. In a word Levene’s test proved that the discrepancies In the ultimate examination scores among the group of students who engaged in the study session and those who abstained is not statistically meaningful. Such identical spread of differences satisfies the requirement necessary to interpret the t-test correctly. However, additional testing with other instruments would make the argument more powerful when verifying the assumption. By digging deeper, you will be able to identify any violations before you make a conclusion that the differences between groups are not important enough. If you treat any violations properly, you will be able to make more accurate conclusions from the t-test.

Results and Interpretations

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3
RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3

To ascertain significant differences in exam performance based on the number of study sessions attended, an independent samples t-test should be employed. The 155 kids in our sample were split into two groups: The 155 kids in our sample were split into two groups:

Cluster 1 comprises 55 students who joined the review seminar.

Cluster 2 comprises 50 students who refrained from attending the review seminar.

Before a comparison is made about the means, the summary statistics that were produced for each group were obtained. These are the sample size, the standard deviation, the mean, which is a measure of central tendency and the sample size again. Examining students who attended the review class in Group 1, their average score was 62.20 on the final test with a range of 7.99. The students from Group 2 who did not attend the study class had the average score on the final test of 61.55 points, which is a little bit worse. This group was as variable as Group 1, with a standard deviation of 7.36.

These plain data indicate the types of students, the scores the students from different types of classes obtained and how the scores varied. We will conduct a t-test on the test scores and see whether the higher mean score in the Group 1 indicates that the review session helped statistically or whether it was simply a fluke. By examining the summary data closely and the outcomes of the t-test together, carefully thought out conclusions on the effect of the review will be drawn. The simple data revealed that students from Group 1, comprising attendees of the review session, exhibited a marginally higher average test score on the final examination (M = 62.20) compared to Group 2, consisting of non-attendees (M = 61.55). While the independent samples t-test is the major test that helps to determine whether these group means are statistically significant.

Cohen’s d also suggested that the impact magnitude was minor to moderate, 0.65. Considering the insignificant p-value, one can say that attending the study class had little or no effect on the scores received on the final test. The evidence powerfully indicates that the averaged scores for each group were not statistically different, in agreement with the null hypothesis. Based on these analytical findings, it’s inconclusive to assert that the review session had a tangible impact on students’ learning ability or performance on the final test. A larger and broader sample of people and further studies could provide more data.

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3 t-Test Application and Interpretation

RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 3

Statistical Conclusion

The study examines whether attending review classes assists students in doing well on their final examinations. The participants were 105 students, randomly assigned into two group. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the central tendency and range of their test results for comparison with the students who abstained from attending the study session. The average ultimate examination score for Cluster 1 was 62.20, with a standard deviation of 7.356. Cluster 2 mean was 61.55 with standard deviation of 7.36.

Upon first examination, it would appear that the marginally elevated mean score in Cluster 1 suggests that the review lesson they attended might have helped them. Nevertheless, additional statistical tests focused on the significance of this change in the means. Insufficient evidence was provided to conclude that the review session resulted in higher scores. An independent samples t-test indicated that the difference between Group 1 students who received extra help and Group 2 students who did not was not statistically significant, although the mean score for Group 1 students was higher. The t-test considers the probability that differences between groups occurred accidentally using the differences within groups and sample size.

The consideration of uncertainty and sampling are paramount when doing inferential statistics such as a t-test. The two groups probably have similar population means for all the review attendance conditions since the p-value is large. Therefore, evidence that the review session improved test scores would require more convincing evidence as well as the studies which replicated the outcomes. At current, one of the simplest ways to interpret the slightly higher mean score among workshop guests is that there were chance effects. However, t-test data of review participation indicated that there was no statistically significant performance difference. There is insufficient evidence that the review impacted on learning.

Deficiencies in Research

A sample size of 105 students divided into two groups, however, may be too small to identify more subtle effects of the review session. The sample size should be broadened to include a more varied group of participants before making general assessments. Inequally grouping the sample can cause problems with the analysis. In Group 1 there were 55 people while only 50 were in Group 2. According to Nabella et al. (2023), in between-group statistical test running, matching group numbers exactly or making each group have 100 or more people will enhance accuracy.

The t-test directly tied the person’s attendance to review sessions with their test results. Nevertheless, academic results might be influenced by many other factors, e.g. study time, preparation means, basic knowledge, and student will. Given some environmental factors, it would be possible to receive more accurate reflection of the unique influence of a review session. Solving these problems by the careful design of the study as well as the methods, and then we could be sure whether the review meetings actually help the students to improve their performance in examinations. Randomized controlled trials as a pattern of moving forward is grounded on data and removes other alternatives of why the score differences or lack thereof may occur. Lastly, this enhancement validates the conclusions derived.

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RSCH FPX 7864 Assessment 1


The independent samples t-test is a useful technique in radiology and medical imaging study because it allows you to compare two unlinked groups on a continuous result. For example, an experiment could be carried out to test whether diagnoses are more accurate when MRI is used instead of X-rays (Hussain et al., 2022). Our autonomous factor would be the imaging technique, either MRI scanning or conventional film X-ray imaging. We randomly choose individuals from two groups to receive one of these scans. The reliant factor is an established gauge of diagnostic efficacy, like the quantity of precise diagnoses rendered by examining the generated images.

Once we would scan all the patients and write down the for accuracy proportions, we would conduct a between-groups t-test. (Zhou et al., 2023). This tests if the average accuracy of MRI (Group 1) and X-ray (Group 2) scans is statistically significant. T-test takes into account the sample number and differences between the groups. The findings of the study can indicate that the MRI group has significantly more correct diagnoses in comparison to the X-ray group (p < 0.05). This would indicate that MRI is more sensitive in detecting abnormalities and localizing precise treatment. Contrariwise, if there are not big differences between the imaging methods, it means the both methods are quite equivalent in terms of medical requirements for this research.

Struckmeier et al. (2023) argue that proper planning of imaging studies and use of appropriate statistical tests, such as independent samples t-tests, allow doctors to make the best choices of scanning tools for the patient. T-value, degree of freedom (df) and p-value is some of the essential numbers that you can use to interpret a t-test. Specifically, the p-value allows identifying the theories that were offered. In comparing the accuracy level of MRI or X-ray image among group A(cancer patients) and group B(healthy patients) randomly assigned to them.

The p-value is significant, suggesting that the number of correct MRI outcomes is unlikely to be chance alone as compared to the X-ray. T-tests used cautiously by radiology specialists can help them to determine the best scanning techniques that will yield the most accurate diagnosis. Checking for the higher sensitivity of the MRI over other alternatives ensures that the best imaging technology is employed in the safe governance of patient support protocols (Hu et al., 2020).


Ann-Kristin Struckmeier, Ebrahim Yekta, Abbas Agaimy, Kopp, M., Mayte Buchbender, Moest, T., Lutz, R., & Kesting, M. (2023). Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in assessing cervical lymph node status in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 149(19), 17437–17450.

Ferone, D., Hatami, S., González‐Neira, E. M., Juan, A. A., & Festa, P. (2019). A biased‐randomized iterated local search for the distributed assembly permutation flow‐shop problem. International Transactions in Operational Research, 27(3), 1368–1391.

Hu, Q., Yu, V. Y., Yang, Y., Hu, P., Sheng, K., Lee, P. P., Kishan, A. U., Raldow, A. C., O’Connell, D. P., Woods, K. E., & Cao, M. (2020). Practical safety considerations for integration of magnetic resonance imaging in radiation therapy. Practical Radiation Oncology, 10(6), 443–453.

Hussain, S., Mubeen, I., Ullah, N., Shah, S. S. U. D., Khan, B. A., Zahoor, M., Ullah, R., Khan, F. A., & Sultan, M. A. (2022). Modern diagnostic imaging technique applications and risk factors in the medical field: A review. BioMed Research International, 2022(5164970), 1–19.

Nabella, S. D., Rivaldo, Y., Sumardin, S., Kurniawan, R., & Sabri, S. (2023). The effect of financing on Islamic banking assets with non-performing finance as a moderating variable in Indonesia. Jurnal Ekonomi, 12(01), 998–1004.

Niiler, T. (2020). Comparing groups of time dependent data using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing alpha-adjusted serial T-tests. Gait & Posture, 76, 58–63.

Wang, X., Junyi Jessy Li, & Wang, C. (2020). The effectiveness of flipped classroom on learning outcomes of medical statistics in a Chinese medical school. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 48(4), 344–349.

Zhou, Y., Zhu, Y., & Weng Kee Wong. (2023). Statistical tests for homogeneity of variance for clinical trials and recommendations. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 33, 101119–101119.

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